MODERATORSOct 27, Author: The steroid ring is composed of three 6-carbon rings and one 5-carbon ring joined, of which cholesterol is the most basic form and, indeed, the precursor. Although the what kind of drugs are steroids steroid includes all agents derived from this ringed structure, this discussion includes do anabolic steroids cause immunosuppression testosterone and the anabolic-androgenic steroids AASs. Testosterone is the principle hormone in humans that produces male secondary sex characteristics androgenic and is an important hormone in maintaining adequate nitrogen balance, thus aiding in tissue healing do anabolic steroids cause immunosuppression the maintenance of muscle mass anabolic. Testosterone has a dual action and can be described in terms of its anabollc and anabolic capacities.
AAS and Immune System - Not all AAS are Immunosuppressive, but why? : steroids
Anabolic steroids can be prescribed for a narrow field of legitimate medical conditions. Typically, they are prescribed one at a time, and by a single physician that is closely monitoring both dosage and side effects.
These prescriptions do not result in dramatically elevated anabolic steroid levels, and they are generally not long term because of the potential for addiction and other harmful side effects. Because of the growing performance and image enhancement market, roid mills have sprung up all over the United States and the illegal importation of anabolic steroids from foreign countries is at an all-time high. It is not difficult to determine when anabolic steroids are being prescribed or used unlawfully.
It does, however, require thoughtful observation and basic inquiry in relation to the red flags discussed. While working as a police officer with the West Palm Beach Police Department, Officer McDonald had owned and operated multiple roid mills under false pretenses.
According to the stipulated statement of facts filed with the court, the defendant was a police officer with the West Palm Beach Police Department. While employed as a police officer, the defendant operated two businesses: Prime Performance Wellness Centers, Inc. However, the problems at the West Palm Beach PD apparently run much deeper than just McDonald, who originally pled not guilty to an array of charges. As reported in Lantigua It was the last of a series of problems he had during his last five years on the force, including 21 letters of reprimand and 73 days of suspensions.
The charge that he had illegally bought and sold steroids while he was in uniform and armed was brought after he had been dismissed from the force. During his guilty plea, it became clear that former Officer McDonald was cooperating with Federal investigators, revealing the names of other police officers that he illegally sold anabolic steroids to through his clinics. His illegal activity also included forging prescriptions, as there was no physician associated with any of his businesses.
These details are reported in McMahon McDonald, who reached a plea agreement with prosecutors and is cooperating with investigators, faces between five years and life in federal prison when he is sentenced July The former officer, who had a long history of misconduct, was fired from the police department in He was a police officer for 20 years and spent the last 18 years of his career with the West Palm Beach department. He was one of several South Florida police officers who served suspensions for buying steroids from the PowerMedica pharmacy on Hillsboro Boulevard in Deerfield Beach.
Federal authorities found patient records for several law enforcement officers in when agents raided and shut down the pharmacy for illegally selling steroids and human growth hormones.
McDonald said little during the brief hearing Wednesday in federal court in Fort Lauderdale. District Judge James Cohn asked how he wanted to plead to the charge….
Prosecutors said that while McDonald was still employed by the police department in and , he opened two clinics in Palm Beach County: Prime Performance Wellness Centers Inc.
Both businesses advertised testosterone and human growth hormone therapy, but prosecutors Jeffrey Kaplan and Paul Schwartz said he used the corporations to illegally sell anabolic steroids and other prescription drugs between September and April ….
It is also worth noting that Officer McDonald was determined to be illegally selling other prescription medication out of his clinics—not just anabolic steroids. As of this writing, the investigation into his client list is reported to be ongoing. On August 15, , Rio Arriba County Sheriff Tommy Rodella 7 and his son were arrested for felony charges subsequent to a grand jury indictment a few days prior.
Both were accused of violently attacking, and illegally detaining, a motorist while acting under color of official police authority. They were also charged with falsifying subsequent police reports to conceal their crimes.
As reported by Cowperthwaite The FBI arrested Rodella in front of his office shortly before 6 a. A federal grand jury indicted Rodella and his son on Aug. The Rodellas were arraigned shortly before 10 a. To be very clear: As further reported, both were released without bail subsequent to a hearing. This despite concerns raised in court by the U.
Attorney regarding both Tommy Sr. As a condition of their releases, neither will be allowed to possess any firearms, explosives or deadly weapons…. Attorney Tara Neda asked for Rodella to be released to a halfway house in Santa Fe County, citing alleged danger to Tafoya and his past history of abuse of power. Garcia said he found little credence in her worry because no harm had yet befallen Tafoya between the incident in March and the time of the hearing.
Neda said Rodella Jr. Garcia said no drugs not prescribed by a doctor were already part of the standard conditions of release pending trial. Later, all charges against Tommy Jr.
This was explained by Reed and Miller The charges in the five-count indictment stem from a March incident during which Sheriff Rodella and his son allegedly engaged in the high-speed pursuit and unreasonable seizure of a victim, Michael Tafoya.
The motion seeks dismissal of the charges against Rodella Jr. At an afternoon press conference, lawyers confirmed Rodella Jr. The motion states that the U. This defense becomes problematic, and raises fitness for duty issues, when one considers that Tommy Jr.
The response from his defense attorney essentially insults the professional and moral compass of every ethical officer on the job, as reported further in Reed and Miller When Bowles was asked how Rodella Jr. The law in a special-intent crime requires the highest level of mental state. You have to specifically and willfully intend to commit a crime. Therefore serving with a severe brain injury while heavily medicated is acceptable. Or something of that nature.
At Tommy Rodella Sr. Sheriff Rodella is charged with depriving Tafoya, 26, of his civil rights with an unconstitutional arrest following a high-speed chase that Tafoya says ended up with Rodella Jr. The prosecution and Tafoya maintain the sheriff, in plainclothes and traveling with his son in his personal Jeep, never identified himself before shoving the badge and cursing Tafoya, but the Rodellas dispute that.
The sheriff also faces a firearms charge. Charges against Rodella Jr. Attorney for medical reasons, stemming from a head injury the younger Rodella suffered while serving with the New Mexico National Guard in Kosovo…. A jogger who testified earlier in the case confirmed that Tafoya, from his car, asked the jogger to call police during the incident. He said he had few memory problems or problems with confusion, but said he did have some problems with irritability and concentration.
It is helpful to note at this point that Tommy Rodella Sr. A career full of behavior that would have found most others in jail, as reported by Staff Rodella was elected sheriff in , despite having been ousted as a magistrate judge by the state Supreme Court two years earlier for misconduct. The court barred him from running again for judicial office. He had been appointed as a magistrate in by then Gov. Bill Richardson, but resigned a few months later amid criticism—and pressure from Richardson—for helping secure the release of a family friend who had been jailed for drunken driving.
As a state police officer, Rodella was disciplined for marijuana use, improper use of a weapon, falsifying official reports, abusing sick leave and using his position for personal gain. He also was suspended for 30 days for firing at a deer decoy that game officers had set up to catch poachers. First, it highlights how steroids are connected with all manner of mental health issues, to say nothing of increased aggression. This by virtue of the facts in the Tafoya incident, and by virtue of Tommy Jr.
Second, it demonstrates fitness of duty issues that are often ignored in law enforcement culture. These in relation to prior incidents of criminal misconduct and the use of mind-altering prescription medication by those authorized to carry firearms and make life-and-death decisions.
These considerations are too often ignored in law enforcement culture for a variety of financial and political reasons. This allows bad actors to infect law enforcement, all the way up the chain of command. Finally, the matter of steroid abuse was not addressed in this case. Basic investigative questions beg answering when steroid use is uncovered, such as: Where did Tommy Jr.
What was he using them for? Was this lawful use? What other drugs were found in his system? What were the results? Was all of the drug use happening under Tommy Sr.
How was Tommy Jr. The answers to these questions, which may be posed in depositions as part of the eventual civil action in this case by Mr. Tafoya, would tend to increase departmental liability significantly depending on how they are answered. And depending on who knew what when.
Additionally, the failure of law enforcement to investigate these issues fully, and hold those involved to account, gives the further impression of negligence and corruption. Fishbein, in Cardiovascular Pathology Fourth Edition , Anabolic steroids may first have been used by German troops in World War II to increase strength and aggressiveness. By the s, competitive athletes were receiving such drugs, and other individuals as well. Use among amateur athletes, and nonathletes, is common.
Cardiovascular complications represent only a portion of the detrimental effects of anabolic steroids that also have adverse effects on the reproductive organs, liver, blood, endocrine, renal, immunologic, and musculoskeletal systems [ 14 ]. There are many different preparations available [ 15 ].