Najlepsze sterydy anaboliczneThe endocrine and nervous systems are two major systems involved in the control and regulation of body functions. The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands and efekt anaboliczny organizmu cells in other organs kidney, placenta, etc. Hormones efekt anaboliczny organizmu distant chemical messengers that are transported via the circulating blood to the target cells where they exert their specific effects. Most hormones are efekt anaboliczny organizmu of cholesterol steroid hormones or are amino acids thyroid sustanon 250 effet secondaire, adrenaline and polypeptide derivatives. The main endocrine glands in the body are the pituitary hypophysisthyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, the pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The rate of hormone secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback anwboliczny mechanism.
muscle anabolism - Polish translation – Linguee
The endocrine and nervous systems are two major systems involved in the control and regulation of body functions. The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands and endocrine cells in other organs kidney, placenta, etc. Hormones are distant chemical messengers that are transported via the circulating blood to the target cells where they exert their specific effects.
Most hormones are derivatives of cholesterol steroid hormones or are amino acids thyroid hormones, adrenaline and polypeptide derivatives. The main endocrine glands in the body are the pituitary hypophysis , thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, the pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The rate of hormone secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. The major hormones and their effects are presented in tables see picture box.
Some hormones reach the target cells by extracellular fluid and have local, paracrine effects prostaglandins, endothelins, etc. Male and female reproductive systems The differences between male and female organisms depend primarily on the sex chromosomes XY or XX and a pair of endocrine structures, the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female.
The differentiation of gonads in utero is genetically determined, but the formation of male genitalia depends upon the presence of testes, secreting testosterone, and if there is no testicular tissue the development is female. After birth the gonads remain inactive until adolescence when they are activated by gonadotrophins LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary.
In adolescence, as a result of the action of the gonads-secreted hormones, the secondary sexual characteristics develop and the final maturation of the reproductive system occurs, including mammary development and onset of menstrual cycles in the female. In both sexes, the gonads have gametogenic production of germ cells and endocrine secretion of sex hormones functions. Steroid hormones secreted by the gonads androgens, principally testosterone, from testes and estrogen and progesterone from ovaries promote the sex-specific physical characteristics and initiate and maintain reproductive function.
Androgens are steroid hormones with masculinizing effects and estrogens are steroid hormones with feminizing effects. Both types of sex hormones are normally secreted in males and females, but there are general differences in hormone concentrations between sexes. There is a slow decline in the functions of male reproductive system with advancing age, but the ability to father children persists.
The functions of female reproductive system regress after a number of years and the menstrual cycles cease menopause. The functions of the male and female reproductive systems are regulated by hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The artificially increasing level of androgens by administration of AAS leads to profound changes in this axis. In male AAS users is observed the clinical syndrome of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism decreased serum FSH and LH, low endogenous testosterone production, impaired spermatogenesis, and testicular atrophy.
This in turn causes a corresponding decrease in secretion of both LH and FSH and the decrease in LH reduces the production of endogenous testosterone. A dual action of both FSH and high levels of intratesticular testosterone is necessary for complete quantitative and qualitative spermatogenesis.
Consequently, the net effect is impaired spermatogenesis. Semen quality decreases, and infertility, manifested as oligospermia or azoospermia, along with abnormalities of sperm motility and morphology, often results.
Due to these changes testicular atrophy is observed in male AAS users. This state is usually reversible after steroid withdrawal, but some case reports indicate that the problems may persist for up to 3 years and that recovery does not always occur. Gynaecomastia is associated with the peripheral conversion of AAS to estrogens, due to the huge amounts of administered aromatizable androgens. Once gynaecomastia is diagnosed cosmetic surgery is often needed to correct the problem.
Enhanced sexual desire, higher incidence of erectile difficulties and priapism are reported in male athletes during AAS cycle. Towards the end of a cycle some men may experience loss of libido. Case reports indicate that AAS abuse can induce enlargement and even adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. Androgenetic alopecia is accelerated in male AAS users who have inherited a tendency for baldness. In women AAS use can result in inhibition of follicle growth and ovulation, irregularities of menstrual cycle and infertility.
The observed menstrual abnormalities include dysmenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. Breast atrophy, ovarian cyst formation polycystic ovarian syndrome with recurrent inflammation and atrophy of the uterus are reported as frequent damaging effects of AAS administration in female athletes. Menopause also may be reached sooner in women with a long history of steroid use.
In women the misuse of AAS leads in all cases to masculinisation, to a greater or lesser degree enlargement of the clitoris, lowering of the voice, hair loss and hirsutism. Most of these side effects are irreversible. In addition changes in libido are also observed after steroid abuse. The decision to undergo a sex transformation taken by a former East German female athlete suggests that long lasting AAS intake during puberty could lead to sexual identity disturbances in women.
The other endocrine effects of anabolic steroids include changes in serum concentrations of some hormones, impairment of the thyroid function decreased T3, T4 , and insulin resistance and diminished glucose tolerance.