Comparison of Health Hazards. Comparison of Physical Hazards. Comparison of Label Elements. Toxic if swallowed Flammable liquid and vapor Contains: Use only with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. Competent authorities will decide how to apply the various elements of the GHS within their systems based on their needs and the target audience.
The GHS includes the following elements: The harmonized elements of the GHS may be seen as a collection of building blocks from which to form a regulatory approach. While the full range is available to everyone, and should be used if a country or organization chooses to cover a certain effect when it adopts the GHS, the full range does not have to be adopted. This constitutes the GHS building block approach. This Comparison of Hazard Communication Requirements document includes the following segments: General Provisions Comparison Purpose.
While the intent of the GHS in international harmonization, it will also address harmonization of sectors and regulations within countries. This transmittal of information is to be accomplished by means of comprehensive hazard communication programs, which are to include container labeling and other forms of warning, material safety data sheets and employee training.
Evaluating the potential hazards of chemicals, and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, may include, for example, but is not limited to, provisions for: Under section 18 of the Act, no state or political subdivision of a state may adopt or enforce, through any court or agency, any requirement relating to the issue addressed by this Federal standard, except pursuant to a Federally-approved state plan.
The use of chemical products to enhance and improve life is a widespread practice worldwide. But alongside the benefits of these products, there is also the potential for adverse effects to people or the environment. As a result, a number of countries or organizations have developed laws or regulations over the years that require information to be prepared and transmitted to those using chemicals, through labels or Safety Data Sheets SDS.
Given the large number of chemical products available, individual regulation of all of them is simply not possible for any entity. Provision of information gives those using chemicals the identities and hazards of these chemicals, and allows the appropriate protective measures to be implemented in the local use settings. Through variations in definitions of hazards, a chemical may be considered flammable in one country, but not another.
Or it may be considered to cause cancer in one country, but not another. Decisions on when or how to communicate hazards on a label or SDS thus vary around the world, and companies wishing to be involved in international trade must have large staffs of experts who can follow the changes in these laws and regulations and prepare different labels and SDS.
In addition, given the complexity of developing and maintaining a comprehensive system for classifying and labeling chemicals, many countries have no system at all. Once countries have consistent and appropriate information on the chemicals they import or produce in their own countries, the infrastructure to control chemical exposures and protect people and the environment can be established in a comprehensive manner.
It is anticipated that, when implemented, the GHS will: While many countries had some requirements, the following systems were deemed to be the "major" existing systems and were used as the primary basis for the elaboration of the GHS: This work was done based on agreed principles of harmonization that were adopted early in the process: Consumer products and pharmaceuticals are specifically addressed in the GHS scope. The HCS includes laboratories, sealed containers and distributors while as a framework for systems the GHS does not include these specific issues.
The GHS addresses testing in the scope section. The HCS addresses testing under hazard determination. All the physical hazards in the HCS are not linked to specific test methods as is the case in the GHS and testing for physical hazards is not required. In addition, this section requires distributors to transmit the required information to employers. Employers who do not produce or import chemicals need only focus on those parts of this rule that deal with establishing a workplace program and communicating information to their workers.
Appendix E of this section is a general guide for such employers to help them determine their compliance obligations under the rule. In addition, decision logics for each hazard have been developed. There is also some discussion about issues that were raised during the development of the system where additional guidance was thought to be necessary to implement the system.
Globally harmonized hazard classification and labeling systems are not yet available to promote the safe use of chemicals, inter alia, at the workplace or in the home. Classification of chemicals can be made for different purposes and is a particularly important tool in establishing labeling systems. There is a need to develop harmonized hazard classification and labeling systems, building on ongoing work; A globally harmonized hazard classification and compatible labeling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, by the year As a result, the following clarification was adopted by the Interorganization Program for the Sound Management of Chemicals IOMC Coordinating Group to ensure that participants were aware of the scope of the effort: The application of the components of the system may vary by type of product or stage of the life cycle.
Once a chemical is classified, the likelihood of adverse effects may be considered in deciding what informational or other steps should be taken for a given product or use setting.
Pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, and pesticide residues in food will not be covered by the GHS in terms of labeling at the point of intentional intake. However, these types of chemicals would be covered where workers may be exposed, and, in transport if potential exposure warrants. There were concerns raised about whether certain sectors or products should be exempted, for example, or about whether or not the system would be applied at all stages of the life cycle of a chemical.
Three parameters were agreed in this discussion, and are critical to application of the system in a country or region. These are described below: The GHS covers all hazardous chemicals. The mode of application of the hazard communication components of the GHS e.
Target audiences for the GHS include consumers, workers, transport workers, and emergency responders i Existing hazard classification and labeling systems address potential exposures to all potentially hazardous chemicals in all types of use situations, including production, storage, transport, workplace use, consumer use, and presence in the environment. They are intended to protect people, facilities, and the environment. The most widely applied requirements in terms of chemicals covered are generally found in the parts of existing systems that apply to the workplace or transport.
It should be noted that the term chemical is used broadly in the UNCED agreements and subsequent documents to include substances, products, mixtures, preparations, or any other terms that may be used in existing systems to denote coverage. In some countries, for example, pharmaceuticals are currently covered by workplace and transport requirements in the manufacturing, storage, and transport stages of the life cycle.
Workplace requirements may also be applied to employees involved in the administration of some drugs, or clean-up of spills and other types of potential exposures in health care settings. SDSs and training must be available for these employees under some systems. It is anticipated that the GHS would be applied to pharmaceuticals in a similar fashion. For example, at the point of intentional human intake or ingestion, or intentional application to animals, products such as human or veterinary pharmaceuticals are generally not subject to hazard labeling under existing systems.
Such requirements would not normally be applied to these products as a result of the GHS. It should be noted that the risks to subjects associated with the medical use of human or veterinary pharmaceuticals are generally addressed in package inserts and are not part of this harmonization process.
Similarly, products such as foods that may have trace amounts of food additives or pesticides in them are not currently labeled to indicate the presence or hazard of those materials. It is anticipated that application of the GHS would not require them to be labeled as such. The mandate for development of a GHS does not include establishment of uniform test methods or promotion of further testing to address adverse health outcomes.
The GHS criteria for determining health and environmental hazards are test method neutral, allowing different approaches as long as they are scientifically sound and validated according to international procedures and criteria already referred to in existing systems for the hazard class of concern and produce mutually acceptable data. For example, drugs are tested according to agreed criteria developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization WHO.
Data generated in accordance with these tests would be acceptable under the GHS. Since the harmonized classification criteria are developed on the basis of existing data, compliance with these criteria will not require retesting of chemicals for which accepted test data already exists.
In addition to animal data and valid in vitro testing, human experience, epidemiological data, and clinical testing provide important information that should be considered in application of the GHS. Most of the current systems acknowledge and make use of ethically obtained human data or available human experience. Application of the GHS should not prevent the use of such data, and the GHS explicitly acknowledges the existence and use of all appropriate and relevant information concerning hazards or the likelihood of harmful effects i.
In addition, chemical inventory requirements in various countries are not related to the GHS. Comparison Implementing the GHS will require the HCS to make decisions concerning the application of the building blocks for physical and health hazard classes and hazard categories.
The HCS is a performance -- oriented regulation. The GHS is a specification oriented. These changes will include required label elements and a required MSDS format, as well as criteria changes.
The HCS may not implement all hazard classes, e. Even within some hazard classes the HCS may not regulate all hazard categories, e. Many hazard classes will require some type of change to the HCS. The criteria for hazard classification are harmonized. The GHS will allow the hazard communication elements of the existing systems to converge. Competent authorities will decide how to apply the various elements of the GHS based on the needs of the competent authority and the target audience.
See also Hazard Communication: Containers of dangerous goods will be marked with pictograms that address acute toxicity, physical hazards, and environmental hazards. As is true for workers in other sectors workers in the transport sector will be trained.
The elements of the GHS that address such elements as signal word sand hazard statements are not expected to be adopted in the transport sector. It is also anticipated that this will be supplemented by employee training to help ensure effective communication. These labels will include the core elements of the GHS, subject to some sector-specific considerations in certain systems.
However, where a system covers something that is in the GHS, and implements the GHS, that coverage should be consistent. For example, if a system covers the carcinogenicity of a chemical, it should follow the harmonized classification scheme and the harmonized label elements. In particular, the transport sector focuses on acute health effects and physical hazards, but has not to date covered chronic effects due to the types of exposures expected to be encountered in that setting.
But there may be other differences as well, with countries choosing not to cover all of the effects addressed by the GHS in each use setting. While physical hazards are important in the workplace and transport sectors, consumers may not need to know some of the specific physical hazards in the type of use they have for a product. As long as the hazards covered by a sector or system are covered consistently with the GHS criteria and requirements, it will be considered appropriate implementation of the GHS.