There are several different types of seizures. Focal seizures with retained awareness This type of focal seizure was previously known as a simple partial. Find out more about the different kinds of seizures and the symptoms they cause. Seizures are generally described in two major groups: generalized seizures and focal seizures. This term was used before and still includes seizures types like tonic-clonic, absence, or atonic to name a few. Focal onset seizures: The term focal is used instead of partial to be more.
Types of Seizures Common
This type of seizure commonly occurs in the temporal lobe of the brain, the area of the brain that controls emotion and memory function. This seizure usually lasts between one to two minutes. Consciousness is usually lost during these seizures and a variety of behaviors can occur in the child.
When the child regains consciousness, the child may complain of being tired or sleepy after the seizure. This is called the postictal period. Generalized seizures involve both sides of the brain.
There is loss of consciousness and a postictal state after the seizure occurs. Types of generalized seizures include: Absence seizures formerly known as petit mal seizures. These seizures are characterized by an altered state of consciousness and staring episodes.
Typically the child's posture is maintained during the seizure. The mouth or face may move or the eyes may blink. The seizure usually lasts no longer than 30 seconds. These seizures may occur several times a day. This type of seizure is sometimes mistaken for a learning problem or behavioral problem.
Absence seizures are uncommon before the age of 5 and occur more often in girls. During the seizure, the child is limp and unresponsive. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures GTC or formerly known as grand mal seizures.
This seizure is characterized by five distinct phases that occur in the child. The body, arms and legs will flex contract , extend straighten out , tremor shake , a clonic period contraction and relaxation of the muscles , followed by the postictal period.
During the postictal period, the child may be sleepy, have problems with vision or speech, and may have a bad headache, fatigue or body aches.
This type of seizure refers to quick movements or sudden jerking of a group of muscles. These seizures tend to occur in clusters, meaning that they may occur several times a day, or for several days in a row.
This rare type of seizure disorder occurs in infants from before six months of age. There is a high occurrence rate of this seizure when the child is awakening, or when they are trying to go to sleep. The infant usually has brief periods of movement of the neck, trunk or legs that lasts for a few seconds. Infants may have hundreds of these seizures a day. This can be a serious problem and can have long-term complications. This type of seizure is associated with fever.
These seizures are more commonly seen in children between 6 months and 6 years of age and there may be a family history of this type of seizure. Febrile seizures that last less than 15 minutes are called simple, and typically do not have long-term neurological effects. Seizures lasting more than 15 minutes are called complex and there may be long-term neurological changes in the child.
While the exact cause of the seizure may not be known, the more common seizures are caused by the following: Birth trauma Congenital present at birth problems Fever Metabolic or chemical imbalances in the body Children, adolescents and young adults: Alcohol or drugs Trauma to the head Infection Unknown reasons Other possible causes of seizures may include: Brain tumor Neurological problems Drug withdrawal Medications.
Diagnosis Diagnosis What are the symptoms of a seizure? Symptoms or warning signs may include: Staring Jerking movements of the arms and legs Stiffening of the body Loss of consciousness Breathing problems or breathing stops Loss of bowel or bladder control Falling suddenly for no apparent reason Not responding to noise or words for brief periods Appearing confused or in a haze Sleepiness and irritable upon waking in the morning Nodding the head Periods of rapid eye blinking and staring During the seizure, the child's lips may become bluish and breathing may not be normal.
How are seizures diagnosed? Diagnostic tests may include: Your child's age, overall health and medical history Extent of the condition Type of seizure Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies Expectations for the course of the condition Your opinion or preference The goal of seizure management is to control, stop or decrease the frequency of the seizures without interfering with the child's normal growth and development.
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in multiple organs of the body, such as the brain, skin, kidneys, lungs, and heart.
When these tumors are in the brain, they trigger seizures. The condition often appears during the first 12 months of life. It can also cause autism and developmental or neurocognitive delays, although about 33 percent to 40 percent of children with this condition have no neurocognitive delay. Seizures occur in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome, a congenital neurological disorder, due to abnormalities in the blood vessels lining the brain.
Children with Sturge-Weber syndrome often have a port wine stain birthmark on the forehead and upper eyelid of one side of the face. There is a greater likelihood of intellectual impairment when seizures start before a child is two years old and are resistant to treatment. A febrile seizure occurs when a child between six months and six years old has a tonic-clonic seizure plus a high fever, which may occur as a result of a viral illness.
Febrile seizures occur in 2 percent to 5 percent of children. The peak age for this type of seizure is about 18 months old. Febrile seizures can last as briefly as a minute or 2 or continue for 30 minutes or longer. The disorder may start suddenly or slowly. Typically, a child from three to seven years old experiences progressive language difficulties.
Seizures are infrequent and mainly occur during sleep. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an uncommon form of epilepsy that causes difficult-to-control seizures, including tonic, atonic, prolonged absences, and generalized convulsions. Almost all children who have Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have cognitive and developmental delays. Rasmussen syndrome is rare and usually begins in children who are 14 months to 14 years old. The condition is associated with progressive neurologic deterioration and seizures.
Seizures often occur first, and mild weakness in an arm or leg usually follows. Rasmussen syndrome causes progressive weakness on one side of the body, as well as intellectual disability.
If the disorder affects the left side of the brain, which controls most language tasks, the child may experience language loss, called aphasia. Weakness and other neurologic problems often begin one to three years after the seizures start, and imaging scans of the brain often show evidence of a slow loss of neurons. Recent studies suggest that the cause of Rasmussen syndrome is an autoimmune disorder triggered by a viral infection.
Symptoms of gelastic epilepsy may include brief, repeated seizures characterized by laughter that has no known cause and is not controllable. These seizures are often the result of small benign tumors in the base of the brain, called hypothalamic hamartomas, that affect the hypothalamus.
These seizures can also occur with frontal or temporal lobe seizures that are usually not due to benign tumors. Benign rolandic epilepsy, also called benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes, is one of the most common childhood seizure disorders. Seizures typically begin when children are 2 to 13 years old. Seizures associated with benign rolandic epilepsy most commonly feature twitching, or they may involve numbness or a tingling sensation in the face or tongue, which can cause garbled speech.
They often occur as a child is falling asleep or waking up. There are two subtypes of benign occipital epilepsy—Panayiotopoulos syndrome and Gastaut-type syndrome. Panayiotopoulos syndrome begins when a child is three to five years old, and Gastaut-type syndrome can start at any age throughout childhood but tends to peak around the age of eight or nine.
Seizures associated with this condition originate in the occipital lobe of the brain. Symptoms often include visual hallucinations, a loss of vision, nausea, headaches, and vomiting. Hallucinations tend to involve brightly colored shapes of all sizes. Children may experience jerking movements on one side of the body. Because it involves visual changes and headaches, this form of epilepsy may be mistaken for a migraine headache. Absence seizures are generalized seizures that usually occur in school-age children who are five to nine years old.
Typical absence seizures involve a sudden cessation of movement, with staring and blinking. Sometimes a child may experience a mild loss of body tone, causing him or her to lean forward or backward slightly.
Unlike other types, absence seizures occur without an aura, or warning. Many children with this form of epilepsy have typical intellectual abilities. However, some children may have developmental and intellectual impairments and experience other types of seizures as well.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is one of the most common epilepsy disorders. It usually begins shortly before or after puberty or in early adulthood. Seizures usually occur early in the morning, within a few hours of waking. Skip to main content. Focal Seizures Focal seizures begin with an abnormal electrical discharge in one small region of the brain.
Temporal Lobe Seizures Temporal lobe seizures, a category of focal seizures, are the most common type of epilepsy in both children and adults. Frontal Lobe Seizures Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most common form of epilepsy. Occipital Lobe Seizures The occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain, behind the parietal and temporal lobes.
Parietal Lobe Seizures Parietal lobe seizures are also relatively rare in children. Generalized Seizures Generalized seizures begin with a widespread, excessive electrical discharge that involves both hemispheres, or sides, of the brain. There are three main types of generalized seizures.
Myoclonic Seizures These seizures cause brief, shock-like jerking movements in a muscle or a group of muscles, usually on both sides of the body at the same time.
Generalized Convulsive Seizures Generalized convulsive seizures are any seizures that cause the body to convulse. Symptomatic Generalized Epilepsy Symptomatic generalized epilepsy is a term sometimes used to describe syndromes that typically begin at birth or become evident during childhood.
Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures PNES Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are not due to epilepsy but may look very similar to an epilepsy seizure. Since , we have been serving the province as a registered health charity incorporated under the statutes of Ontario as a non-profit and non-governmental organization.
We aim to raise public awareness and improve education through publications, conferences, outreach initiatives and our website. Skip to main content. About Epilepsy What is Epilepsy? What is a Seizure?
Focal or partial seizures Expand 1. Focal or partial seizures Section Focal or partial seizures occur when seizure activity is limited to a part of one brain hemisphere.
Types of Seizures
A full list of the types of epileptic seizure someone with epilepsy can have. Absence seizures (previously called petit-mal) are more common in children than in. Learn about different types of seizures and their signs and symptoms so you can tell when someone is having a seizure. Visit our first aid page to learn what you. What are the Different Types of Seizures. Generally, seizures fall into the two categories: focal and generalized seizures. The difference between these types is.