She is an avid speaker and writer in cannabis law and regulation and serves . Cannabis Appraisal and Financial Management: Hot and Emerging Issues. The Cannabis Industry Accounting and Appraisal Guide and potential investors , it can also open doors to a new client group that up until several years ago didn't exist. for appraisers and accountants about the unique financial aspects and intricacies related to businesses Why is the Cannabis Industry So Hot Today?. With so many states legalizing various aspects of cannabis, it isn't surprising that Guide is to provide useful information about the unique financial aspects and Accounting and Appraisal Guide and about this exciting, relatively new, and rapidly evolving industry. Chapter 3: Why is the Cannabis Industry So Hot Today?.
Emerging Cannabis Management: Hot Appraisal Issues and Financial and
That date coincides with the end of the four-month lock-up period for the November securities. MMCap did not address a question about the purpose of the share lending agreements, but convertible arbitrage strategies often involve establishing an offsetting short equity position. Given that MMCap had already triggered the share conversion, it could have essentially hedged its entire million-plus share holdings before the four-month lock-up had expired, and would have still held roughly 23 million share purchase warrants that were part of the original deal.
By April, the fund had sold all the warrants, shares and debentures it had acquired in its two previous deals, in June and November of last year. According to a regulatory filing, MMCap acquired Share lending agreements involving MMCap also appear in filings from Aurora 9. Whatever combination of long and short strategies MMCap has used, it has made massive returns on the cannabis trade. In , the Canadian arm of the fund posted an annual return of In , the annual return rose to The deals have been a boon for investment banks such as Canaccord Genuity Corp.
Canaccord, for example, generated record earnings in the last three months of , with significant revenue coming from the Canadian cannabis trade.
Dozens of cannabis companies have been catapulted onto Canadian public exchanges, typically through reverse takeovers of energy or mining shell companies, many with little more than a licence to cultivate cannabis from Health Canada an increasingly common asset.
They see companies raising hundreds of millions of dollars in a sector with undeniable momentum, even if valuations are astronomical. Postmedia is pleased to bring you a new commenting experience. We are committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion and encourage all readers to share their views on our articles.
We ask you to keep your comments relevant and respectful. Visit our community guidelines for more information. Hedge funds have used a sophisticated financial playbook to essentially recycle capital through multiple companies and deals, funding wide swathes of the cannabis sector in the process.
How a handful of hedge funds cornered cannabis financing — and made a killing in the process. Controversy-ridden company should sell or wind down underperforming segments, such as mining, says one analyst. Canadian heavy crude has become too expensive to ship by rail. While Krugman doesn't expect a crisis of the magnitude of , he said policy makers in Washington would struggle to contain large shocks.
Comments Postmedia is pleased to bring you a new commenting experience. One of the ironic reasons for this is that chronic cannabis consumers classically have cognitive impairments which lead to defects in their decision making skills However, there are steps therapists can take in helping this phenomenon of a nation and a world obsessed with smoking pot.
Continued education of the dangers of cannabis should take place on a persistent and relentless basis. It should be understood that some literature and some people conclude that the negative impact of smoking cannabis is limited Cannabis consumers may be cognizant of such literature, which may encourage them to continue to use this so-called safe illicit drug. Treatment specifically for cannabis use is needed as management of other or co-existing drug dependence such as heroin, tobacco, or alcohol, for example does not necessarily reduce levels of cannabis consumption Comprehensive school-based prevention programs teaching about drug use, including cannabis, can be beneficial in lowering youth drug experimentation and addiction , Increased education about high-risk adolescent behaviors for adolescents and their parents can be useful in prevention efforts Intense education is needed for groups at high risk for drug abuse, such as males, young adults, and individuals with increased psychological stress Behavioral principles for management in adolescence can be directed by factors shown to suggest higher risk for cannabis use including genetic factors, family history, minimal parental supervision, drug availability, high-risk peer group, and those with a need for higher thrill-seeking activities , Groups at high risk of mental health problems are those with combined drug use, such as comorbid cannabis and methamphetamine; thus, this group should receive intense management Comprehensive behavioral management can also be of help in reducing cannabis use in those arrested for cannabis possession Screening of these persons for suicide risk is recommended and lower cannabis use can reduce risks for suicide in those with and without psychosis Patients with psychosis and cannabis smoking should undergo behavioral therapies to improve both problems and not just one If life-time abstinence from cannabis is not possible, delaying its use especially heavy use as long as possible after adolescence and young adulthood, may result in less white matter damage from cannabis consumption than noted during cannabis smoking in the second and third decade of life Management can also focus on reducing cannabis use if abstinence is not possible, since adverse effects tend to be increased with heavy use of cannabis Therapy should seek underlying factors in use of cannabis or other drugs.
For example, research notes that socially anxious males are at increased risk for use of cannabis as part of a mechanism to deal with or avoid social situations Thus, therapy can be directed at reasons for this avoidance behavior and the acquisition of successful strategies to improve their social anxiety which may reduce the need for ongoing cannabis consumption.
Often recommended behavioral management strategies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management have their limitations and combination of these techniques does not increase success in helping those with cannabis dependence However, research notes that youth with cannabis use disorder benefit more from CBT versus family therapy if they are older teenagers i.
However, one should continue to provide the cannabis consumer with hope and encouragement that overcoming this drug addiction is possible despite its wide acceptance in society. Research does show that such benefit is more likely with intensive or prolonged behavioral therapy, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing Also, it should be understood that even brief i.
Behavioral therapies can be useful in the motivated cannabis addict and such counseling seeks to help the cannabis consumer gain control over their addiction at the CNS level by enhancing neuroanatomical progression from ventral striatal nucleus accumbens to dorsal striatal control Genetic factors also have a role in why some develop addiction and are recalcitrant to management strategies Involvement of families, schools, communities, and peer groups are critical in seeking to reduce and prevent cannabis smoking in adolescents.
It is unclear what the interactions are between abuse of illicit drugs and use of prescription drugs, but the potential drug interactions should be considered in prevention and treatment plans There are currently no FDA-approved pharmacologic agents for management of cannabis dependence.
Traditionally, pharmacologic agents have not been specifically beneficial in treating marijuana addiction whether dependence or withdrawal symptoms However, a careful assessment of each patient is necessary and a reduction in cannabis use can be noted in some patients under standard pharmacotherapy for mental illness There is no evidence that one anti-depressant, anxiolytic, or anti-psychotic is more effective than another.
Cannabis use disorders are common in those with schizophrenic spectrum disorders; however, there is no current literature that guides clinicians in the best treatment approaches for this dual diagnosis Knowledge, however, is slowly emerging to guide pharmacologic therapies for cannabis-induced problems in the twenty-first century.
Individuals with co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use tend to have higher abstinence rates if treatment includes measures aimed at dual abstinence Thus, pharmacotherapy for nicotine addiction may help the individual stop marijuana use as well by removing use of and thus, influence of tobacco. Pot-associated persistent insomnia may be improved with use of trazodone.
Research is looking at new methods of treatment that will emerge from the study of the genetics of addiction including gene-milieu interplay and role of genetic variation Pharmacologic management typically centers on use of benzodiazepines or atypical anti-psychotics. Propranolol and rimonabant vida infra have been reported to be beneficial in management of acute, physiologic effects of cannabis intoxication ; use of flumazenil and CBD is under current study in this regard Oral THC dronabinol may relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms but not relapse , Adding dronabinol and lofexidine alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist can lower the severity of withdrawal and lower relapse rates in those with cannabis dependence The anti-depressant mirtazapine can also help those undergoing cannabis withdrawal.
Cannabidiol has been shown in animal and human studies to have anti-psychotic effects and it may become a useful pharmacotherapeutic agent for schizophrenia management Treatment of patients with psychotic disorders and cannabis use should include seeking to reduce or stop the cannabis use, perhaps using cannabinoid agonist medication Those with psychosis can be provided with appropriate anti-psychotic medications.
Nabilone is a synthetic THC analog with improved bioavailability over dronabinol and is under current research as a potential medication for marijuana dependence as it may lead to a positive mood and limited adverse cognitive effects in marijuana smokers see chapter 5. Olanzapine can reduce psychomimetic effects of THC in some individuals and its potential benefit is under study Rimonabant and the anxiolytic buspirone have provided some efficacy in cannabis addicts on maintenance therapy.
It is not available in the United States and was pulled from the European market in October of due to a high risk to benefit ratio; concerns have been identified regarding major psychiatric adverse effects i. Animal research notes that various drugs, including cannabis, can induce chronic changes in markers of oxytocin function with resultant social behavior dysfunction.
Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone that has been under research in the regulation of drug abuse This neuropeptide may serve as a neuromodulator on neurotransmission of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as well as effects on the hippocampus CNS oxytocin pathways may offer a way of improving mood and social deficits found in some individuals with drug addiction Research suggests that use of intranasal oxytocin may be useful in correcting the negative cannabis and other illicit drug effect on social behavior and perhaps protect the individual from addictive disorders.
Research has failed to validate the use of naltrexone for the treatment of cannabis dependence. It is an inhibitor of COMT catechol- O -methyltransferase and is under research as a possible drug for cannabis dependence.
Other drugs under research include lithium, dronabinol, URB [fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH inhibitor], methyllycaconitine, or MLA nicotinic alphareceptor antagonist , and endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes Research must provide more specific information on how cannabis and products derived from cannabis can be useful in medical management of illness or if the cannabis risks simply outweigh any potential benefit Does cannabis have advantages over specific cannabinoids?
Can the psychotropic effects of cannabis be reduced, while utilizing potential medicinal benefits of CB1 receptors activation?
Oral cannabis undergoes changes which produce a narrower therapeutic window and raises questions regarding whether or not medicinal cannabis products can be given orally or must be used as a mist or smoke for positive and optimal benefit.
It is difficult to find an oral dose that benefits most without induced unacceptable or unwanted adverse effects in many unwary consumers Generalized consumption of the unprocessed C.
A medical role for specific cannabinoid compounds remains under active medical research , What is well-known is that there are many potential medical and psychiatric adverse effects to smoking cannabis and its synthetic derivatives. Links between use of alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs continues to be unveiled by research Research is identifying new techniques of cannabis identification to assist the police and other authorities in forensic investigation Finally, treatment of an individual with cannabis dependence is very difficult and requires more research in the twenty-first century , The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Public Health v. Published online Oct Greydanus , 1 Elizabeth K. Hawver , 1 Megan M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Box , IL Jerusalem, Israel e-mail: Substance abuse in adolescents and young adults.
A manual for pediatric and primary care clinicans. Berlin, De Gruyter, Received Jul 30; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Marijuana cannabis remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. Introduction A number of chemicals are inhaled for the development of euphoria, including marijuana cannabis, pot , methamphetamine, heroin, crack cocaine, phencyclidine, and nitrites amyl and butyl 1. Cannabis sativa Plant The products of cannabis are made from the easily grown hemp plant, Cannabis sativa , and the psychoactive ingredient, deltaTHC , is at the heart of the complex cannabis controversy in this and the past century.
Prevalence Prevalence data for cannabis can be determined in various ways such as self-report data, waste water sewage analysis, and sales of cigarette paper 10 , Table 1 Life-time use of marijuana: Open in a separate window. Cannabis and other drug use Pot is often combined with consumption of alcohol or diazepam which increases cannabis sedative effects. Cannabinoids Cannabis sativa contains over 60 cannabinoids as well as over other chemicals including benzopyrene, a known carcinogen.
Table 2 Types of cannabinoids. Endocannabinoid system The endocannabinoid system consists of CNS cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands; ligands Latin: Table 3 Potential benefits of cannabis based on research studies see text. Synthetic cannabinoids cannabinoid designer drugs; cannabimimetics A number of designer drugs have become available in the twenty-first century and cannabis has become involved in this trend as well see chapter Cannabis Lab Testing Those smoking 3.
Table 4 Potential adverse effects of marijuana a see text. Addiction physiologic Withdrawal syndrome Dependence psychological and with heavy use, tolerance Variety of negative psychological reactions: Cannabis hyperemesis Cannabinoid hyperemesis is noted in some cannabis users who present with usually sudden, severe, and cyclic intractable emesis which resolves with intravenous fluids, antiemetics, and cannabis cessation.
Dental effects of cannabis Pot users tend to have increased risks for dental caries, oral infections, and periodontal disease — Pulmonary effects Some research identifies an anti-inflammatory effect from consumption of the C. Cannabis and cancer Marijuana smoke contains toxic chemicals in amounts similar to or higher than that found in tobacco and is linked as a potential respiratory tract carcinogen 27 , 94 , 97 , Cardiovascular effects Cannabinoids have complex and varying effects on blood pressure depending on which cannabinoid is being studied Motor vehicle accidents Adolescents and young adults who drive vehicles under the influence of pot often combined with alcohol are at increased risk two-times of motor vehicle accidents leading to potential death and injury 90 , 91 , 97 , , Sports doping Those involved in sports should understand that cannabis is a drug banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency despite history of pot use in the Olympics and it has been on the list of prohibited drugs of the International Olympic Committee since 76 , Psychiatric Cannabis and neurodevelopment effects Adverse neuropsychological effects of cannabis use must be separated out from the acute effects of cannabinoids, effects of heavy cannabis consumption, and psychiatric disorders worsened or even caused by cannabinoids Cannabis and ADHD One report of adolescents studied during inpatient management of problems related to drug dependence i.
Cannabis dependence Psychological dependency and tolerance are classically described in pot smokers. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome Chronic pot users can develop psychological addiction and a withdrawal syndrome comparable to heroin addiction 8.
Addiction The identification and isolation of THC in enhanced specific research into effects of cannabis on humans and animals Cannabis and psychosis Chronic use of cannabis, particularly with the newer synthetic cannabis products, is associated with increased rates of psychosis — Pharmacologic Therapies There are currently no FDA-approved pharmacologic agents for management of cannabis dependence. Cannabis Intoxication Pharmacologic management typically centers on use of benzodiazepines or atypical anti-psychotics.
Cannabis Withdrawal Oral THC dronabinol may relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms but not relapse , Cannabis-Associated Psychosis Cannabidiol has been shown in animal and human studies to have anti-psychotic effects and it may become a useful pharmacotherapeutic agent for schizophrenia management Cannabis Dependence Nabilone is a synthetic THC analog with improved bioavailability over dronabinol and is under current research as a potential medication for marijuana dependence as it may lead to a positive mood and limited adverse cognitive effects in marijuana smokers see chapter 5.
Oxytocin Animal research notes that various drugs, including cannabis, can induce chronic changes in markers of oxytocin function with resultant social behavior dysfunction.
Others Research has failed to validate the use of naltrexone for the treatment of cannabis dependence. Summary Research must provide more specific information on how cannabis and products derived from cannabis can be useful in medical management of illness or if the cannabis risks simply outweigh any potential benefit Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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What you need to know before investing in pot stocks
The cannabis market bull case is built on an entirely new approach to the drug business Now there are multiple asset managers trying to get cryptocurrency ETFs Tilray reached a valuation of over $20 billion in wild trading last week that . Oversupply of hot, new stocks will quickly become saturated. Selling weed seems like a cash cow, but the real money these days is in can control in this industry," says Sally Vander Veer, co-founder and CFO build a new dispensary and rent out retail space to a few non-marijuana tenants. dispensaries because marijuana properties are a hot commodity--a $2. Testimony presented before the Vermont Senate Committee on Finance on January 19, Options and Issues Regarding Marijuana Legalization . The common-factor model has implications for evaluating marijuana control policies that The current study reports findings from a pilot evaluation of a voluntary.