tions of musical exoticism from several important scholars with differ- ent interests and identical Exoticism—as the “All the Music in Full Context” Paradigm permits us to Still, Madama Butterfly is complex and contradictory. .. conference presentations: “Strains of Japonisme in Tin Pan Alley, –” ( delivered. 27 Modernist metatexual exoticism in literary ethnography and ethnographic literature, of two strains of Africanism—one stemming from exoticism and the other from In more complex ways than during the Age of Discovery, Africa becomes. A complex strain full of exoticism. The arrival of the Diesel line to the international cannabis market marked the beginning of a new era and the entry ticket to an.
full strain A of exoticism complex
Today the symbolic significance of colors in early modern Europe is perhaps most readily associated with the compellingly colorful medieval and renaissance art works that have survived in sacred spaces and museums.
But in the pre-modern period a deep concern with colors was not limited to the arts: The historical reconstruction of a sixteenth-century dress , originally created for the Augsburg Imperial Diet from , is a particularly compelling example of the politicized use of brightly colored dress made from dyed textiles.
Ulinka Rublack notes the challenges encountered during the reconstruction process. As Marieke Hendriksen has discussed, here in Utrecht, we are building a new database of artisanal recipes. Here an Italian one from the anonymous Padua Manuscript ca.
Take the berries of buckthorn towards the end of the month of August, boil them with pure water, until the water is loaded and thick with color; add a little burnt roche alum and then strain it. In color recipes such as this one, seasonality and intimate knowledge of seasonal products sensitivities to additives play a key role.
Thus, the commission of brightly dyed dresses for display at important events must have been a time-consuming affair that required planning long ahead of the political event and entailed a collaborative process of sourcing and experimenting that depended not only on seasonal knowledge and availability, but was also prone to risks of seasonal change.
Moreover, as I will show in my next post, color recipe reconstructions allow us to experience the efforts and knowledge that went into the creation of early modern color worlds, which have become unfamiliar to our modern period eye.
In past centuries, devoid of freezers and heated greenhouses, the seasons affected medicines as well as foodstuffs. In addition to pickled vegetables and stored grain, early modern people worried about their provisions of healing plants and animal substances. These, too, had their season: Brunschwig knew this all too well from personal experience.
As an apothecary running his own shop near the fish market, maintaining a stock of efficacious remedies was his chief responsibility and expertise. Twice a year, they would send round a committee of medical experts to all apothecary shops, to ensure that no perished goods were stocked, and to throw away any that had gone off.
While the heavenly spheres were characterised by material perfection and changelessness, all matter on earth was made up of the four elements air, water,fire, earth and subject to their constant permutations. They were doomed to endless cycles of generation, change, and decay. As well as pointing to the instability of all earthly matter, the language of seasons and their cold, hot, dry or moist qualities was associated with early modern ideas about the stages of human life.
Youth, health, reproduction, decline and death were analogous with the annual cycle of flourishing and decay in nature — a relationship which is richly illustrated in a set of anonymous seventeenth-century engravings see here for an interactive digital reproduction.
The idea of changing seasons was emblematic of an early modern view of the material world which was characterised by instability. Faced with such difficulties, Brunschwig and others turned to a branch of knowledge with a longstanding commitment to imitating and manipulating natural processes underlying the transformations of matter: They still have some of the elemental qualities of the original herb, and are ultimately perishable.
In the early modern world of matter, the seasons symbolised cycles of change and decay which spelled trouble for healers and makers of medicines. In some of the earliest vernacular works on pharmacy, Brunschwig describes distillation as a powerful tool for defying the material corruption of seasonal changes. A friar in an apothecary Credit: Image from Wikimedia Commons. To make giallo santo Take the berries of buckthorn towards the end of the month of August, boil them with pure water, until the water is loaded and thick with color; add a little burnt roche alum and then strain it.
Such events were common in the Dionysiac mysteries and they were caused by the same factors: Similar cases … are recorded again and again in the history of Christian mysticism, and are especially remarkable, for instance, in the writings of St.
Angel of Foligno, or the fascinating records left by Marie de l'Incarnation, the Ursuline nun; and when the wind of inspiration was blowing through him, Schiller fell flat upon his face. What is so impressive about Fermor is that he does not allow the analogies to his own culture, nor erudition more generally, to exhaust difference. After gleaning what he can from the European parallels to the Voodoo crisis of possession, he frankly admits their limits: He can only speculate as to that culturally-rooted uniqueness:.
Again, as with the Lwas, the religion loses itself in a jungle of details, and I think goes no farther. One writer says that Voodoo, like all ancient religions, is impatient of explanation. It was developed instinctively to lead the slaves to a private liberty that the state of things in their world forbade. So…the slaves went warrening back into the darkness, farther and farther away from the heartless glare. There they crouched in the warm secrecy of their own sounds and spirits and joys and terrors, and above all, with memories of Africa which grew, with every passing generation, dimmer and more wonderful….
They were not heading for but away from something, and that is why I think Haitian writers are wrong to look any farther than the Lwas [i.
The burrow led nowhere. It was being there that mattered. Here, Fermor acknowledges a historical contingency—African diasporic slavery—as accountable for a unique quality of the popular religion that defies explanation in European scientific, ethnological terms.
His empathic imagination allows him to intuit—now in a more relativist than humanist manner—the radical difference between the cultural formation of these former slaves and that of ancient Greece or medieval Christian Europe. But acknowledging radical difference does not mean that his imagination quits. Rather, having come so far through humanist connection, he can now open himself to the profoundly relativist appeal of the exotic. Its ineradicable difference challenges his raw imagination to extend itself farther than it has gone before.
His ability to imagine radical otherness — how it must have been for these former slaves — reminds one, again, of the best of the 18th and 19th century philologists Vico, Nietzsche who were able to reconstruct a distant culture through their tremendous imaginations.
In a culminating paragraph, Fermor achieves the sort of understanding that is possible through humanist-relativist exoticism: That said, the radical Otherness is now perceived in a much more textured way than it was at first glance a first glance that would also be the last glance for the more Orientalist sort of traveler.
And this higher-level appreciation for difference preserves exoticist fascination as well as the autonomy and complexity of the Other. So the point of Voodoo, and the whole of the religion, is its practice. It exists for itself. No theory, not a written line, embraces them. I was at first mystified by its lack of rules, of a code of ethics, of a logical hierarchy…. But to the masses in Haiti, it is far more than a philosophy, a dogmatical or metaphysical system or a code of ethics.
It is the past, the present, and the future, the air they breathe, the entire universe. Humanism and relativism function dialectically in this form of exoticism, the one mode eventually leading to and requiring the other. The moment we are analyzing demonstrates this dialectic: What had once been a mere interest in or commitment to explore Voodoo is now raised to the status of obsession: Travel and its literary form, travel writing, have a crucial role to play in this sort of humanist exoticism, for travel presents superlatively fecund opportunities for interaction between self and cultural other.
Otherness becomes something more than notional. It must be confronted directly by the self; no text can serve as a buffer, as it can and does in Orientalism. If travel originally laid the groundwork for Orientalist notions of the Other, travel can also undo them.
Indeed, such undoing is, on the whole, exactly what Patrick Leigh Fermor accomplishes. In his nearly page odyssey through the Caribbean, only one episode stands out as unmarked by the sort of humanist exoticism that defines his way. Playing amateur anthropologist, Fermor captions two photographs thus: This Carib girl washing clothes in a brook is typical, with her Mongoloid cast of feature and long straight lustrous hair, of the dying race to which she belongs.
The only thing that impugns her pure Carib descent is the shape of her nose, which may be an indication of some remote miscegenate strain […] No such doubt can be leveled at this girl, with her clear bronze skin and the well-defined bridge of her nose.
With its intensely racialized physiognomic description, its appeal to the myth of the vanishing Indian, and its ethnological prototyping, this description could have been extracted directly from the 19th century imperial ethnographic archive.
Here, as in the corresponding chapter on the Caribs, Fermor seems to be only the most recent in a long tradition of British writers playing amateur anthropologist, a tradition dating back to the first modern realistic novel, Robinson Crusoe. He goes on for fifteen lines, offering such observations as:. If, as Edward Said claims in Culture and Imperialism , Robinson Crusoe was the literary spawn of Empire, it is worth remembering that it was not the firstborn child.
This inaugural novel indeed established a two-century strong link between the new genre and Empire, but that link merely supplemented the connection between travel writing and Empire that had existed since the early modern period.
Recall that our inaugural novel passes itself off as a travelogue. This generic cross-dressing is, I believe, as imperially salient as the oft-noted emplotment of a homo economicus who goes abroad to establish a fiefdom, for it shows us the fortification of the textual attitude of Empire that Said himself diagnoses in Orientalism. Like Matryoshka nesting dolls, the same images are reproduced over and over again by these interlocking genres— ethnography, travel writing, novel.
According to Thomas Keymer and James Kelly, who annotate the current Oxford Edition of Robinson Crusoe , the passage introducing Friday borrows heavily from the conventions of travel writing, particularly the sort of amateur ethnography that was expected by the Royal Society. The colour of their Skins…is coal black, like that of the Negroes of Guinea. As Said argues in Orientalism , a whole textual tradition was built up through the reproduction of certain representations of the Other.
In this regard, the novel turned out to be not so novel after all: The obvious upshot of all of this textual reinscription is that it bars the possibility of substantive changes in the perception of the Other. It is astonishing to note how little the rhetoric for describing indigenous Caribbeans changed from Dampier to Defoe to Fermor. Whether pseudo-scientifically rendering humans as specimens or mystifying difference by exaggerating it unto the point of caricature, Orientalists depend on the detached perspective.
Note the two sides of the coin of ersatz Orientalist knowledge: If Fermor plays pseudo-scientist in the caption, he plays sensationalist yarn-spinner in his body text on the the Caribs. Normally—as we have seen—Fermor privileges direct interaction with the local culture over the European archive. However, in the case of his visit to the Caribs, not only is the proportion reversed, but there is hardly any interaction to speak of. For all the ceremony and poignancy of initial encounter, nothing fruitful is generated.
We dismounted and walked towards them, and, as we met, hats were raised on either side with some solemnity. And we all shook hands. This meeting with the last survivors of this almost extinct race of conquerors was as stirring and impressive in its way as if the encounter had been with Etruscans or Hittites.
For the remainder of the treatment of the Caribs, not a single parallel to anything European is drawn. If Fermor is not deliberately estranging his reader from these indigenous people, then he is at least maintaining the distance already established by the imperialist archive.
The presence of these men sends the mind winging back to the vague centuries before the November Sunday in when, with a volley of poisoned arrows, the ancestors of these Caribs drove the sailors of Columbus back to their boats, forcing the Admiral to set sail again in the direction of Guadeloupe.
How many centuries earlier, nobody knows, for the only traces of that dim pre-Columbian age are half a dozen lumps of stone scattered among the islands, incised with a few barbaric golliwogs, and all the rest is surmise. And yet, surmise he does. Though it would be possible to dispel some of the vagueness by learning directly from the Caribs about their own history, Fermor inexplicably foregoes the opportunity.
The elders of the Carib forest-capital Fermor visits speak English and Creole, so language would have posed no impediment to communication. Whereas Fermor might have offered himself as a proxy interlocutor for the King, thus learning directly through interview, as he does in every other community, about the contemporary state of affairs, Fermor is instead content to rely on a U. In typical Orientalist fashion, a text written by an outsider prevails over knowledge generated by or among the natives themselves.
All in all, Fermor reports no substantive conversation with the Caribs. That the way into that past should be not conversation with the Carib elders about their history but rather inter-texts by European monks tasked with converting the heathens is even odder. Hardly reliable informants, these monks, intent on converting heathens, would likely have seen the Caribs as outlandish, backward. The only explanation I can offer for this contradictory relationship to missionary sources on local culture would be the exclusively textual attitude in the one case and not the other.
Where Fermor has no interaction with the locals, he has recourse only to such sources as these; he must derive his authority from them since he has no on-the-ground interactive authority from which to speak. Before long, Fermor has blended his voice with theirs so thoroughly that citations begin to drop out, and we are left with a Fermor speaking with great, if dubious, authority about the Caribs.
The following is an example of such elision of voice: The sounds of Middle Eastern elements permeate throughout the record, though they are never overbearing, overdone, or oppressive. In keeping with my food theme, the cultural heritage of Sabbo, Rob, Shimmy Sonic, and Widdo is the base ingredient used to create a bouillabaisse that eschews standard kick-kick-snare and overused high hat percussion, simple synthesizer basslines, and constant one-upmanship that pervade more traditional hip hop.
The energetic pulse and bounce of the title track, accented by female emcee Rye Rye, continues to place the album somewhere between the always danceable speeds of frenetic and frantic.
That said, the unified adherence to the Middle Eastern metronome throughout the album tends to be a bit unwavering, making it seem less diverse than it actually is. By and large Exotic On the Speaker deftly incorporates a multitude of rhythmic structures and vocal styles that are distinctly Middle Eastern, hip hop, or, as the case may be, both. The four DJs work well together, undoubtedly drawing upon their own varying experiences and tastes to present the powerful debut of Soulico.
These Tel Aviv titans are in the house and the soundsystem is booming, so where are you? Kurasch tells us Carter's story. A contemporary viewing of Alfred Hitchcock's film, Marnie , makes it clear: Despite missing significant feminist cues, Leni Zumas' Red Clocks is a helpful contribution to popular culture's overlap with politics. Talos has created a unique emotional cocktail of wonder and melancholy with Far Out Dust , despite a few shortcomings.
Exoticism. RALPH P. LOCKE. One of the most vivid exotic characters in all of opera is identical Exoticism—as the “All the Music in Full Context” Paradigm permits us to Still, Madama Butterfly is complex and contradictory. .. conference presentations: “Strains of Japonisme in Tin Pan Alley, – ” (delivered. At its limit, the varietas complex strains toward that understanding of radical On the one hand we have the chaos and exoticism of the East (Antony and. Translation, Exoticism, and the Long Nineteenth Century Padma Rangarajan projects the andits realityis complicated bya complex ofsymbolic attachments that and Englightenmentinflected Orientalism” asan “alternative strain” predating.