Watching your furry friend suffer from lung cancer is heartbreaking. Learn how to recognize the signs and treat lung cancer in dogs. Lung cancer is rare in dogs and cats, but when it does occur, the average age of dogs diagnosed with lung tumors is about 11 years, and in. and cancers of the skin, stomach, lungs, liver, intestines, brain, and other organs. When it comes to treating dogs with cancer, chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery . Mahaney is dubious of the current state of most available pet foods that.
Treatments Dogs Cancer – Lung in Available
Cancers are often named for the type of cell that is growing out of control. The terms cancer, malignancy, and neoplasia may be used interchangeably — they are just different ways to say cancer. There are many types of cancer and each behaves differently. Some forms of cancer have the ability to spread to other sites in the body, which may be far from the original site. This occurs because these cancer cells can enter the blood or lymph vessels and be carried to other organs.
When the cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it is called metastasis. As for any diagnosis, in pet or person, educate yourself on the options, costs involved, pros and cons to treating your pet and make an informed decision.
There are several types of therapies used to treat cancer in companion animals. These include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. For some cancers, treatment will consist of a single type of therapy, while others may require combination therapy 2 or more different therapies.
In an effort to test newer and hopefully more effective forms of therapy, you may be asked to enroll your pet in a clinical trial. The purpose of these trials is to learn more about the specific type of treatment that may be of value to humans and other pets with cancer , as well as hopefully providing a benefit to your pe.
When your pet is diagnosed with cancer, you may be uncertain about the choices presented to you. Just as we do in human medicine, get a second opinion from a board-certified veterinary oncologist. This may confirm a chosen course of treatment or open up new options for your pet. The Veterinary Cancer Society has a helpful website, offering resources for pet owners, including a "Find a specialist in your area". Understanding veterinary medical terms will help you better understand what the veterinary oncologist is suggesting for your pet.
Do a little reading before your visit to become more familiar with some of the terms used. Bring a notebook along to your veterinary oncology visit so that you can take notes about treatment options and next steps. To gather information to help determine the extent of the cancer, your veterinarian may order several tests. These can include blood tests e. Tests done by your local veterinarian might be repeated at a cancer specialty center due to the changing nature of your pet's illness.
Other tests that may be used include: Once this testing has been completed, your veterinarian will be better able to discuss treatment options for your pet. The goal of therapy will also be discussed. Tumors that have metastasized spread to other areas extensively are usually not curable.
Therefore, the goal of therapy for these animals is palliation relieve of symptoms and possibly prolong life, without providing a cure. Localized tumors that do not invade surrounding tissues have the best chance to be cured. Cancer treatment for animals focuses on alleviating pain and suffering, along with extending life, as long as the quality of that life can be preserved. Treatment is typically much less aggressive than in humans.
Is it a swim in the local pond, sunbathing on the front porch, a long walk in the woods, or just snuggling up with you. When your animal cannot enjoy these activities, or they cause more discomfort, their quality of life is compromised. Sometimes your veterinarian can offer symptom management to alleviate pain and suffering, and sometimes, when quality of life is impacted, we need to think about euthanasia.
Medical care for pets can be costly. If you have pet insurance, now is the time to use it! If not, CareCredit , is a financing option available for veterinary care, but the veterinarian providing care must be a registered provider with CareCredit. But be sure to read the fine print and think about the long term debt you could be incurring.
Finally, some pet support organizations may be very useful when you are unable to afford the vet bill. Best Friends Animal Society has a helpful list of organizations and options for financial assistance. These effects were not investigated further, and that dog recovered with supportive treatment based on clinical signs, including analgesia and a delay in dose administration.
One dog developed bilateral hind limb ataxia after receiving a third dose of vinorelbine 15, One dog developed diffuse epidermal crusting with ulcerated and exudative lesions 4 days after receiving the second dose of vinorelbine and received no additional doses. Median duration of follow-up was days range, 5 to 1, days; mean, days. Four primary lung tumors had epithelial characteristics that were not assigned a more specific histologic or cytologic classification. Median age of dogs with primary pulmonary carcinoma was Median body weight for the dogs was Nine of those dogs had concurrent regional lymph node extirpation.
Lymph node metastasis was confirmed histologically in 3 dogs and suspected in another 2 dogs. Surgical margins were considered incomplete in 3 dogs, and 2 dogs had malignant pleural effusion at the time of lobectomy.
Of the 15 dogs that underwent surgery, 13 with no appreciable or microscopically evident disease received vinorelbine as first-line adjuvant treatment. One dog concurrently received piroxicam. Another dog received multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to vinorelbine administration, which included carboplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, dolastatin, gemcitabine, endostatin, and docetaxel.
Vinorelbine had been administered while that dog had progressive disease. One dog with progressive disease received no initial adjuvant treatment, and vinorelbine was then administered after progressive disease was diagnosed.
During the study period, adjuvant treatment was provided to owners as an option for all dogs with primary lung tumors undergoing lung lobectomy at the teaching hospital. The recommendation made and the agents selected were at the discretion of the clinician and might have been impacted by clinical findings, including histologic subtype, stage, and grade of the tumors, although ultimately the decision to provide such treatments was made by dog owners. For all 15 dogs that underwent surgery initially, with or without immediate adjuvant treatment, median TTP was 95 days range, 5 to 1, days , and median OST was days range, 22 to 2, days.
For the 13 dogs that received immediate adjuvant treatment with vinorelbine, median TTP was days range, 5 to 1, days , and median OST was days range, 22 to 2, days. Outcomes were not compared between dogs that underwent surgery and then did or did not receive chemotherapeutic agents because this was not possible within the scope of the study.
In 10 dogs, surgery was not performed because confirmation or suspicion of metastatic disease existed at the time of diagnosis. For the remaining dog, the owner made the decision that the dog would not undergo surgery.
For 12 of the 16 dogs with macroscopically evident primary pulmonary carcinoma, vinorelbine was the primary palliative treatment. The other 4 dogs with macroscopically evident pulmonary carcinoma received treatment with multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to receiving vinorelbine, which included cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and piroxicam. One of these dogs also received treatment with a genetically modified Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium bacterium VNP prior to vinorelbine administration.
Following palliative administration of vinorelbine alone or following other treatments, 3 dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days range, 47 to days , 7 had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days range, 52 to days , and 6 had progressive disease for a median of 21 days range, 8 to 32 days. No dogs with primary pulmonary tumors had a complete response following palliative treatment with vinorelbine.
In the 2 dogs that initially underwent surgery but had local recurrence or metastatic disease prior to commencing vinorelbine as a palliative treatment, stable disease was documented for a period of 91 and 48 days, respectively. When these 2 dogs were included with the aforementioned 16 dogs that received palliative-intent treatment for macroscopically evident disease, then 9 dogs had stable disease with a median duration of 68 days range, 48 to days.
Nine dogs with histiocytic sarcoma were treated with vinorelbine. Median age in this subgroup was 7. Five dogs were spayed females, 3 were castrated males, and 1 was a sexually intact male.
Median body weight was Only 2 dogs had appendicular cubital [elbow] joint and tibial histiocytic sarcoma. Both had evidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis and received palliative treatment only. Three dogs had primary pulmonary lesions, and all 3 underwent lung lobectomy. Two dogs had subcutaneous lesions, with one in the area of the left prescapular lymph node and the other in the ventral cervical region perhaps effaced and enlarged and therefore displacing the retropharyngeal lymph node or mandibular lymph node.
Both lesions were presumed to be metastatic, although no primary tumor was identified, and both were extirpated initially. One dog had primary splenic disease and underwent splenectomy as the primary treatment. The other had primary ocular disease, and enucleation was the initial treatment. Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to all 9 dogs.
Seven dogs had undergone surgery and received lomustine as an adjuvant prior to receiving vinorelbine for treatment of progressive or recurrent disease. One dog with multiple pulmonary metastases at the time of diagnosis and another dog with diffuse metastases to intra-abdominal lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis had received lomustine as the primary palliative treatment prior to receiving vinorelbine for treatment of progressive disease.
The dog with a primary lesion in the elbow joint and suspected metastatic pulmonary disease not confirmed histopathologically received 17 doses of vinorelbine initially at weekly intervals and then every 2 weeks. A partial response was evident radiographically for the pulmonary lesions 36 days after receiving the initial dose of vinorelbine, and complete resolution of the pulmonary lesions was radiographically evident 91 days after that initial dose, with an overall TTP of days.
Measurements of the primary lesion in the elbow joint revealed a decrease in lesion size after treatment, but the associated musculoskeletal changes did not completely resolve. In another dog with a primary splenic lesion, the lesion was surgically removed, but the dog then developed pulmonary metastasis.
That dog had evidence of progressive disease while receiving lomustine, but then had a radiographically apparent complete response 21 days after weekly treatments with vinorelbine began.
It received 19 total doses of vinorelbine, with 6 administered once per week, 7 given once every 2 weeks, then another 6 given once per week, and had a TTP of days. The final 6 weekly doses were administered after progressive disease was documented, and these doses resulted in a partial response for a duration of an additional 50 days.
Four other dogs had stable disease for a median TTP of 61 days range, 35 to days. In 2 of those dogs, progressive disease was detected within 12 to 27 days after vinorelbine treatment began, after which the dogs were euthanized. Another dog that received 4 doses of vinorelbine at weekly intervals had evidence of progressive disease 28 days after treatment began. Five dogs with mast cell disease were treated with vinorelbine. Median age of this subgroup was 8.
Three were spayed females, 1 was a castrated male, and 1 was a sexually intact male. In all dogs, high-grade mast cell tumors had been diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings and biological behavior of the tumors.
Four dogs had confirmed evidence of regional lymph node metastasis when vinorelbine administration started; in the fifth dog, lymph node involvement was suspected in addition to the confirmed presence of local disease recurrence. All dogs had received vinblastine and prednisolone prior to vinorelbine administration as well as various combinations of lomustine, cyclophosphamide, masitinib, and toceranib phosphate.
Two dogs received only 1 dose of vinorelbine, and progressive disease was evident shortly thereafter. One dog underwent a third cytoreductive surgery followed by 3 doses of vinorelbine, although the third dose was administered because of rapid local recurrence. One dog developed crusting, ulcerated, and erosive skin lesions 4 days after the second dose was administered and received no additional treatment.
Histologic evaluation was not performed; therefore, the exact etiology of these lesions could not be ascertained. One dog received 8 doses of vinorelbine and had stable disease for 87 days. Four dogs with multicentric lymphoma were treated with vinorelbine. Median age of this subgroup of dogs was 5. Two were sexually intact females and 2 were castrated males. All dogs had advanced-stage multicentric lymphoma. Two dogs had B-cell lymphoma, 1 dog had T-cell lymphoma, and 1 dog had mixed B-cell and T-cell lymphoma.
Vinorelbine was administered as a rescue medication to all 4 dogs with multicentric lymphoma. All dogs had received multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to vinorelbine treatment, including a protocol involving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, followed by several other rescue medications and protocols. Two dogs one with T-cell and the other with mixed B- and T-cell lymphoma received only 1 dose of vinorelbine, and progressive disease was detected 8 and 17 days later, soon after which the dogs were euthanized.
One dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphoma received 4 doses of vinorelbine and had a short-lived partial response for 21 days. A second dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphosarcoma received 8 doses of vinorelbine and had stable disease for 56 days. Two dogs with melanoma were included in the study.
In both dogs, progressive disease was evident after receiving 3 or 4 weekly doses of vinorelbine. A 9-year-old female apparent German Shepherd Dog cross had apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma that was macroscopically evident and metastatic.
The dog had previously undergone surgery and treatment with other drugs mitoxantrone, paclitaxel, and carboplatin before receiving 12 doses of vinorelbine. That dog had stable disease, and more importantly, paraneoplastic hypercalcemia appeared to have resolved for days after vinorelbine administration began.
A 4-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever with thyroid gland carcinoma and pulmonary metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis had previously received doxorubicin and then carboplatin. The dog subsequently received 10 doses of vinorelbine, and it had stable disease for days after vinorelbine administration began. A year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever cross with metastatic mammary gland carcinoma had undergone mastectomy and received doxorubicin before vinorelbine treatment began.
The dog received a predetermined finite course of treatment involving 4 doses of vinorelbine, and it had stable disease for days after the treatment began.
One dog with metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site received 4 weekly doses of vinorelbine and had evidence of progressive disease 29 days after that treatment began. Another dog with metastatic tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma received a dose of vinorelbine once every 1 to 2 weeks for 5 doses and had evidence of progressive disease 33 days after that treatment began. A 7-year-old spayed female American Water Spaniel had metastatic grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma.
The affected limb was amputated, and the dog received adjunctive treatment with doxorubicin, followed by treatment with toceranib phosphate and then metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide and piroxicam.
That dog had evidence of progressive disease documented 28 days after commencing weekly vinorelbine treatment. A 7-year-old spayed female Rottweiler cross had a metastatic appendicular osteosarcoma. The affected limb was amputated, which was followed by cisplatin and doxorubicin treatment. That dog had progressive disease documented 21 days after commencing weekly vinorelbine treatment. Findings of the present study supported the preexisting hypothesis that vinorelbine has clinical activity against primary lung tumors in dogs.
In a previous study 4 in which the effects of vinorelbine treatment were evaluated in 7 dogs with measurable bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, a partial response was identified in 2 dogs, and stable disease was achieved in an additional 3 dogs. In the present study, vinorelbine treatment resulted in a partial response in 3 of 18 dogs with macroscopically evident pulmonary carcinoma and stable disease in an additional 9 dogs with the same histologic tumor type.
The median OST of days for dogs treated with vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment in the present study is comparable to median OSTs of , , and days achieved in earlier studies 20 — 22 for dogs with primary pulmonary neoplasia that were treated primarily with surgery alone, without adjuvant treatment with vinorelbine. However, given the marked differences among the previous studies 20 — 22 and the study reported here with respect to design, treatments evaluated, data collected and reported, and statistical analyses, comparison of any findings must be made with caution, particularly given that vinorelbine was not one of the chemotherapeutic agents administered in 2 of those studies.
Findings related to the 9 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma in the present study also appeared encouraging. It has been stated that any therapeutic intervention, beyond analgesia and prednisolone alone, is capable of improving outcomes in dogs with histiocytic sarcoma. A longer median OST days has been reported for dogs with appendicular histiocytic sarcoma managed with an aggressive multimodal treatment approach. A prolonged partial response was identified in a second dog with an appendicular primary tumor and subsequent pulmonary metastases, with a TTP of days and OST of 1, days.
Stable disease was observed in 4 dogs 3 with metastatic pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma and 1 with an unidentified primary tumor. Meaningful statistical analysis could not be performed because of the small sample size. Because only 5 dogs with mast cell disease were included in the present study, meaningful statistics could not be calculated.
Among the 4 dogs with multicentric lymphoma included in the present study, 1 dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphoma received 4 doses of vinorelbine and had a partial response for 21 days. A second dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphosarcoma received 8 doses, and it had stable disease for 56 days.
The partial response detected in the first dog was admittedly short-lived, but maintenance of stable disease in the second dog for 56 days might be considered a satisfactory outcome in this subset of dogs with lymphoma. In dogs with advanced-stage refractory disease that are otherwise clinically normal, vinorelbine might be considered a reasonable rescue agent. Dose and administration regimens for most dogs of the present study were similar to those reported for vinorelbine in dogs of other studies.
Concurrent fever and neutropenia has been recognized in only 1 of the 57 dogs reported to have received vinorelbine in the veterinary literature 4 — 6 and in only 1 of the 19 cats in the phase 1 dose-determination trial. Three of these dogs had grade 2 thrombocytopenia, and 1 dog had grade 1 thrombocytopenia.
This finding adds weight to the assertion of other investigators 4 that vinorelbine-induced myelosuppression might be cumulative.
One dog had nonspecific signs of abdominal pain and increases in liver enzyme activities that were not investigated further, and that dog recovered with supportive treatment.
Upcoming clinical trial for dogs with lung cancer
Compared to people, primary lung cancer is very uncommon in dogs. therapy) is the newest and most convenient treatment available for primary lung cancer. Lung tumors are relatively rare in dogs, accounting for only 1% of all cancers Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for dogs with lung carcinoma, provided no. According to the reports, average age of dogs with primary lung tumors has Treatment — Pulmonary carcinomas are best managed with surgical extirpation.