The words hemp, cannabis, and pot have commonly been used interchangeably, and this has Hemp Flower—the Non-Psychoactive Bud. It is the primary non-psychoactive chemical of the cannabis plant, beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions from epilepsy to chronic. But whole plant marijuana, the only natural source of THC, continues to first,” said Dr. Tod Mikuriya, “that happens to have some psychoactive properties, of whole plant cannabis remedies, not just the low THC medicine.
Bud Hemp Flower—the Non-Psychoactive
The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0. Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In addition, in the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs , which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis , other than the separated resin whether crude or purified obtained from the plant.
In September , following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,  Epidiolex was rescheduled by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use. The Farm Bill  legalized the sale of "non-viable hemp material" grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program. Prescription medicine Schedule 4 for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent 2.
A schedule 4 drug under the SUSMP is Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy — Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription.
It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval.
Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health. Associate Health Minister Peter Dunne said restrictions would be removed, which means a doctor will now be able to prescribe cannabidiol to patients. On October 17, , cannabidiol became legal for recreational and medical use. Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in Western Europe. CBD is classified as a medical product in Sweden. Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation combined with deltatetrahydrocannabinol, is a product available by prescription only until for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis where other anti- spasmodics have not been effective.
Until , products containing cannabidiol marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body , the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency MHRA and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims. A literature review indicated that cannabidiol was under basic research to identify its possible neurological effects,  although as of [update] , there was limited high-quality evidence for such effects in people.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Cannabinol or Cannabinodiol. S4 Prescription only UK: Schedule I except Epidiolex, Schedule V. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia.
Retrieved 28 June Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Series B, Biological Sciences Review. State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications". Implications for Treating Anxiety-Related Disorders". Journal of Natural Products. US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 25 June Retrieved 1 November Hard Evidence at Last? Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. A Systematic Review of the Evidence". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations". American Journal of Public Health. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Journal of Biological Chemistry. British Journal of Pharmacology. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. On the nature of the Beam test". Structure elucidation of four pyrolytic products , doi: An improved synthesis of cannabidiol". Journal of Experimental Botany. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors.
There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common. In recent years, hemp has been growing in popularity as a material used in shoes. The strength of hemp fibers makes it an ideal material for shoes because it is durable.
In addition, it is breathable and naturally antimicrobial, so it does not hold on to odors. Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships , though the rope had to be protected by tarring , since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot , as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.
Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope , which does not require tarring, became widely available. Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding horses, for instance , or for horticultural mulch.
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation —the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.
Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom. The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle. Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks; this product is sometimes called "hempoline".
Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to power diesel engines. In , Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to power "by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps , i. Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palmseeds, and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste.
Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Traditionally, hemp stalks would be water- retted first before the fibers were beaten off the inner hurd by hand, a process known as scutching.
As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen. After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in , the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained "frozen in time".
Recently, new high-speed kinematic decortication has come about, capable of separating hemp into three streams; bast fiber, hurd, and green microfiber. Only in , did Ireland, parts of the Commonwealth and other countries begin to legally grow industrial hemp again.
Iterations of the s decorticator have been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing known as thermomechanical pulping. Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits; e.
Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. Use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the s, when it was associated with its genetic sibling a. Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug", even though it is not a 'drug' and it has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable alternative crop. In the United States, the public's perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product,"  in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II.
This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality. The seeds are sown with grain drills or other conventional seeding equipment to a depth of 1. Greater seeding depths result in increased weed competition.
Nitrogen should not be placed with the seed, but phosphate may be tolerated. Organic fertilizers such as manure are one of the best methods of weed control. In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0. Typically, hemp contains below 0. Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters.
The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting , either water retting the bundled hemp floats in water or dew retting the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew, and by molds and bacterial action.
Harvesting industrial hemp Cannabis sativa - this is a separate harvest for a different form of processing: The upper part of the plant with the leaves will be collected for cold pressing, while the lower part remains for producing fiber and initially it is left on the field.
For profitable hemp farming, particularly deep, humus -rich, nutrient-rich soil with controlled water flow is preferable. Waterlogged acidic, compressed or extremely light sandy soils primarily affect the early development of plants. Hemp benefits crops grown after it. So, it is generally grown before winter cereals.
Advantageous changes are high weed suppression, soil loosening by the large hemp root system, and the positive effect on soil tilth. Since hemp is very self-compatible, it can also be grown several years in a row in the same fields monoculture. Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens , including bacteria , fungi , nematodes , viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant.
These diseases rarely affect the yield of a hemp field, so hemp production is not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides. Hemp is considered by a study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks.
France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe , Chile , and North Korea. The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses ; other uses are under development.
Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics ; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile -grade fibre.
Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from and onward ranged from 2. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8. Northern Ontario crops averaged 6. Statistic for the European Union for to say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2—3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3—4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw.
For an annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to add nitrogen N: In the Australian states of Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland , New South Wales , and most recently, South Australia , the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use.
The first to initiate modern research into the potential of cannabis was the state of Tasmania, which pioneered the licensing of hemp during the early s. The state of Victoria was an early adopter in , and has reissued the regulation in Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since ,  where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act Commercial production including cultivation of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada 9, ha in , ha in In the early s, industrial hemp agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba.
The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance, and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government.
Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol in Canada and the first harvest in France is Europe's biggest producer and the world's second largest producer with 8, hectares 20, acres cultivated. The main production areas were in Ukraine ,  the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia , and near the Polish border. Since its inception in , the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv Glukhov , Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. However, at least an estimated 2. When grown for nondrug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and for the oil.
Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding. Hemp was made illegal to grow without a permit in the U. All four states are waiting for permission to grow hemp from the DEA. Yet, even with this progress, hemp businesses seem to face difficulty expanding in the US as they face challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches.
According to a case study done by Forbes , hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana. The Hemp Farming Act of , part of the Farm Bill  signed by President Donald Trump December 20, ,  changed hemp from a controlled substance to an agricultural commodity, legalizing hemp federally, which made it easier for farmers to get production licenses, get loans to grow hemp, and allowed them to get federal crop insurance.
Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated. Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa , "grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine to East Asia Tibet and China ," but, "textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age.
The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause. Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna Kil'ayim 2: In late medieval Germany and Italy , hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes , or boiled in a soup.
The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns. The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about Terpenes may also modulate the affinity of THC for the CB1 receptor and interact with neurotransmitter receptors, which may support contributions of terpenes on cannabinoid-mediated analgesic and psychotic effects McPartland and Russo, ; Russo, In view of the potential of phytocannabinoid-terpene synergy, it has been suggested to tailor novel therapeutic treatments such as CBD-terpene extracts to be used against acne, MRSA, depression, anxiety, insomnia, dementia and addiction Russo, Finally, there is an example of predator-targeted synergy between terpenes and phytocannabinoids in the Cannabis plant itself: Trichomes are epidermal protuberances covering the leaves, bracts and stems of plants and some of them, like the glandular trichomes, are capable of secreting or storing secondary metabolites as a defense mechanism.
Several papers have focused on the characterization of these specialized structures using -omics Wang et al. An -omics database TrichOME; available at: Additionally, several procedures in some instances supported by a video demonstration; e. Hemp has different types of trichomes Figures 3A—F which belong to two categories, i. Capitate sessile, capitate stalked and bulbous hemp trichomes are secretory structures Figures 3C—F.
A Unicellular non-glandular trichome; B cystolythic trichomes; C capitate sessile trichome; D capitate-stalked trichome; E simple bulbous trichome; F complex bulbous trichome. Images kindly provided by Dr. In Cannabis THCA is accumulated in the heads glands of both capitate-stalked and capitate sessile trichomes, but in the former the content is higher Mahlberg and Kim, The accumulation in the storage cavity is due to the cytotoxicity of cannabinoids: Heterologous expression of THCAS fused to GFP in tobacco leads to fluorescence of the trichome heads, thereby confirming the localization of the enzyme in the storage cavity Sirikantaramas et al.
Depending on their color, hemp glandular trichomes show different secretory phases Mahlberg and Kim, According to the current model cannabinoids are produced via terpenes secreted by plastids present in the disk cells and phenols stored in their vacuole Mahlberg and Kim, Subsequently vesicles are released into the cavity together with fibrillar matrix originating from the cell walls of the disk cells. The fibrillar matrix is transported to the subcuticular cell wall and contributes to its thickening via yet unidentified mechanisms Mahlberg and Kim, Besides cannabinoids, Cannabis trichomes produce other secondary metabolites, namely terpenes see previous paragraph on Cannabis phytochemicals , which are responsible for the typical plant aroma Russo, Among the Cannabis terpenes of low abundance, is nerolidol 0.
Given the pharmacological importance of these compounds, it would be interesting to devise engineering strategies aiming at either boosting the secondary metabolism, or increasing the density of trichomes in Cannabis. Among the possible genetic engineering approaches, it is here worth mentioning two examples recently reported in Artemisia annua.
We will here discuss only these two examples, as further discussion on how to scale up the production of cannabinoids is presented later in this review. It has been recently shown that the transformation of A. The rol genes are known for their stimulatory action on plant secondary metabolism Bulgakov, The study on A.
An additional study on A. The hydrolytic enzyme favors the release of active plant growth regulators from the conjugates stored in the plastids, thereby favoring trichome formation, as well as biomass production and leaf area Singh et al.
It would be interesting to devise an engineering strategy aimed at increasing the density of trichomes in Cannabis , by adopting a similar strategy.
In this section of the review we will: The cultivation of Cannabis is severely regulated in many countries; therefore alternative in vitro growth techniques are receiving a lot of attention. Methods to multiply C.
It was shown that micro-propagated plants are genetically stable; therefore the method is appropriate and useful for the clonal multiplication of this important crop Lata et al. A protocol has also been developed for the propagation of hemp via the synthetic seed technology. According to this procedure, axillary buds or nodal segments are encapsulated in calcium alginate beads Lata et al.
This system was shown to allow the successful growth of homogeneous and genetically stable Cannabis plants even after 6 months of storage Lata et al. To set up a successful Cannabis transformation protocol, the mastery of in vitro culture techniques is necessary: Organ regeneration, in particular shoots, can be quite cumbersome and therefore the screening of different plant growth regulator concentrations and combinations has to be carried out to find the right culture medium composition.
Cannabis sativa is a notorious recalcitrant plant to transformation, because the regeneration efficiencies are quite low and dependent upon the cultivar, tissue, plant age and growth regulator combination Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina et al.
As an example, although successful transformation of hemp calli via Agrobacterium tumefaciens was reported by Feeney and Punja , the undifferentiated cells failed to regenerate the shoots. The cells were transformed with phosphomannose isomerase and colorimetric assays showed successful expression of the transgene.
Nevertheless some success in hemp regeneration was reported and shown to be linked to the choice of specific plant growth regulators. For example the addition of thidiazuron TDZ , which has cytokinin-like activity, was shown to increase the development of shoots in hemp explants Lata et al.
Cannabis transformation protocols using plant explants thereby avoiding the passage to undifferentiated cells have been described for several important crops e. Notably, successful transformation of hemp plants was reported by MacKinnon et al.
Additionally a patent application was filed describing Cannabis transformation using 1—2 cm hypocotyl explants, the plant growth regulators zeatin and 6-benzylaminopurine BAP for shoot regeneration Sirkowski, An additional system offering interesting applications for the industrial production of compounds showing pharmaceutical effects in humans is the hairy root system, a type of Agrobacterium -transformed plant tissue culture used to study plant metabolic processes.
Transformation of hemp and subsequent establishment of hairy root culture has been described by Wahby et al.
In this study hypocotyls were found to be the most responsive tissue for infection. The hairy root system is very interesting for the production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants Jiao et al.
The hairy root system is characterized by hormone-independent high growth rate and by the same metabolic potential as the original organ Pistelli et al. A protocol for the establishment of hairy roots from Cannabis callus cultures has also been described Farag and Kayser, The authors found that after 28 days of cultivation in the dark, a peak could be observed in the accumulation of cannabinoids in culture media supplemented with different concentrations of indoleacetic acid IAA.
The production of cannabinoids in hemp hairy root cultures can be then further implemented with adsorbents to avoid toxicity issues a more detailed discussion concerning possible ways to avoid toxicity is present in the section dedicated to heterologous plant hosts. In alternative, inducible promoters can be used, like for instance the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter, which was already shown to be effective in inducing a controlled, reversible and dosage-dependent expression of GFP in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots Hughes et al.
Plant cell suspension cultures offer important advantages, as they can be transformed and then cultivated in bioreactors for the production of useful metabolites Weathers et al. Cannabis callus cultures are not able to produce any cannabinoids, irrespective of the chemotypes drug-, hybrid-, or fiber-type used as mother plants or growth regulators used in the culture medium Pacifico et al.
The transformation of hemp cell suspension cultures with genes involved in specific metabolic pathways can offer the possibility of enhancing the production of important classes of metabolites such as cannabinoids but also of others with potential pharmacological use. In this paragraph we will discuss about potential biotechnological approaches to boost the production of cannabinoids in Cannabis cell suspension culture.
It is important to mention here that two transcription factors belonging to the MYB family were already shown to be preferentially expressed in Cannabis glands Marks et al. These genes show homology with Arabidopsis thaliana MYB and MYB12, which are known to be involved in the tolerance to oxidative stress and flavonol biosynthesis, respectively Marks et al. The expression of these transcription factors in an inducible manner is a strategy worth being tested for the production of cannabinoids.
The inducible expression will limit the negative effects caused by the toxicity of the accumulating cannabinoids during the growth of the transformed plant cells as more thoroughly described in the next section. Workflow showing the achievements in green and potential future approaches in light blue to produce cannabinoids in cultures of Cannabis , as well as other plant hosts.
In addition to the genetic engineering approach, plant cell suspension cultures can be elicited to boost the production of secondary metabolites. The literature is rich in examples concerning the increased expression of secondary metabolites in plant cells elicited with different factors reviewed recently by Ncube and Van Staden, Both biotic and abiotic stress factors can indeed be used to re-direct the plant metabolism: In hemp suspension cells, elicitation with biotic and abiotic elicitors did not induce an increase in cannabinoids Flores-Sanchez et al.
It is here worth mentioning the effect of a so far neglected element, silicon Si. Despite being a non-essential element for plant growth, Si is known to increase plant vigor and to alleviate the effects of exogenous stresses Epstein, Very recently Si was shown to alleviate the effects of salt stress and to induce the production of chlorogenic acid in Lonicera japonica Gengmao et al.
Given the stimulatory effects that Si has on plant metabolism, it is interesting to further investigate, from a molecular perspective, the effects of Si supplementation on Cannabis secondary metabolite production. Cyclodextrins have also been used in plant cell suspension cultures to enhance the production of various non-polar metabolites such as stilbenes Yang et al.
They are known to form inclusion complexes with lipophilic compounds, including cannabinoids Hazekamp and Verpoorte, , in their hydrophobic cavity, thereby improving metabolite solubility in an aqueous environment.
It would therefore be worth investigating the effect of cyclodextrins on the production of the non-polar cannabinoids in hemp suspension cell cultures. For example synthetic biology could be used to recreate the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway in heterologous plant cells via the expression of THCAS, together with the upstream enzymes involved in the synthesis of CBG, i.
Examples for the occurrence of metabolons exist in plants for pathways involving, e. Entire metabolic pathways can be engineered via the use of synthetic metabolons enabling the association of enzymes in close proximity: One possible way to assemble a synthetic metabolon is via the use of a scaffolding protein enabling the association of the enzymes Singleton et al.
The assembly of multimodular constructs for expression in plants is no longer an insurmountable challenge, thanks to the development of methods like the Gateway-mediated cloning reviewed by Dafny-Yelin and Tzfira, , Golden Gate Binder et al.
When cannabinoids are produced in heterologous plant hosts, toxicity effects have to be taken into account, as it was shown that THCA and CBGA cause cell death via apoptosis in cells of Cannabis and tobacco BY-2 Sirikantaramas et al. For plant cell suspension cultures cultivated in bioreactors, the in situ product removal via a two-phase culture system might be useful to favor the accumulation of the toxic metabolites produced in sites which are separated from the cells Cai et al.
The use of adsorbents in the culture medium can not only sequester the toxic compounds, but also stimulate the secondary metabolite biosynthesis Cai et al. This approach has been recently proposed in A.
The authors induced the formation of an artificial compartment generated by membranes deriving from endocytosis and the endoplasmic reticulum-vacuole trafficking via the expression of a truncated SNARE protein, AtSYP The creation of an artificial compartment can be used for the production of cannabinoids, because it can trap and stabilize the toxic secondary metabolites until extraction is performed, in a manner analogous to what discussed for artemisinin.
Hemp is a unique versatile plant, which can provide high biomass quantities in a short time. Hemp stem is used as a source of woody and bast fibers for the construction and automotive industries, while hemp seeds are used as a source of dietary oil and hemp leaves and flowers as a source of bioactive components.
To date, more than phytochemicals have been described in hemp Gould, , and their pharmacological properties appear to go much beyond psychotic effects, with the capacity to address needs like the relief of chemotherapy-derived nausea and anorexia, and symptomatic mitigation of multiple sclerosis.
Nature has already provided a large source of new molecules and new skeletons. Cannabis presents a colossal potential for enlarging the library of bioactive metabolites. Compounds can be obtained from hemp trichomes, cell suspension cultures, hairy root systems, or via the biotransformation of THCA or CBDA using fungal, bacterial, or plant cells Akhtar et al. Apart from the importance of studies focused on improving Cannabis genetic transformation, it is necessary to know more about the regulatory mechanisms involved in secondary metabolite production in C.
For example enzymological and structural studies will help devise protein engineering approaches to improve the catalytic functions of key enzymes Taura et al. However, further studies would still be needed to elucidate other key genes involved in biosynthetic pathways of, for instance, less-abundant cannabinoid derivatives. For that purpose, the combination of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of gene products would provide an accelerated path to discovering novel biosynthetic pathways to specialized metabolites.
Indeed, the functions of numerous genes have been identified and characterized through the correlation of gene expression and metabolite accumulation Sumner et al. Classical approaches used focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of the targeted phytochemicals and on the plant transcriptome, as influenced by the developmental stage and environmental stresses. With respect to the resurgence of interest in Cannabis phytochemicals nowadays, the results of such studies will be soon available.
CA was involved in the review writing, J-FH was involved in manuscript refinement, and GG initiated the idea of the review and was involved in the manuscript writing. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The authors are grateful to Dr David J. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Plant Sci v. Published online Feb 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Plant Biotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.
Received Oct 27; Accepted Jan 8. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Cannabis sativa L. Introduction The current climatic and economic scenario pushes toward the use of sustainable resources to reduce our dependence on petrochemicals and to minimize the impact on the environment.
A Source of Fibers with Antibacterial Properties Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource, which can provide biopolymers, fibers, chemicals and energy Guerriero et al. Open in a separate window. Their Production Pathways and Myriad of Biological Activities Numerous chemicals are produced in hemp through the secondary metabolism. Phytocannabinoids Phytocannabinoids represent a group of C21 or C22 for the carboxylated forms terpenophenolic compounds predominantly produced in Cannabis.
Table 1 Summary of the concentrations in cannabinoids found in different parts of the hemp plants, in vitro hairy roots, and some commercial medicinal products. The most recent references have been used, when available. Health Benefits Linked to Cannabinoids The pharmacology of phytocannabinoids has previously been reviewed elsewhere Pacher et al.
Adverse Health Effects of Cannabinoids As mentioned earlier, the recreational and medical use of Cannabis as well as of THC and other synthetic cannabinoids have also been associated with numerous side effects.
Terpenes Terpenes form the largest group of phytochemicals, with more than molecules identified in Cannabis Rothschild et al. Health Benefits Associated with Terpenes Terpenes are lipophilic compounds that easily cross membranes and the blood-brain barrier in particular Fukumoto et al. Phenolic Compounds Phenolic compounds, also known as phenylpropanoids, constitute one of the most widely distributed group of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom.
Health Benefits Associated with Phenolic Compounds In plants, phenolic compounds may act as antioxidants under certain physiological conditions and, thereby, protect plants against oxidative stress. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects Between Phytochemicals It is now well accepted that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables and other plant foods are due to the synergy or interactions between the different bioactive compounds or other nutrients present in the whole foods, and not to the action of a sole compound Liu, Small Factories of Phytochemicals Trichomes are epidermal protuberances covering the leaves, bracts and stems of plants and some of them, like the glandular trichomes, are capable of secreting or storing secondary metabolites as a defense mechanism.
Cannabis In Vitro Propagation and Transformation The cultivation of Cannabis is severely regulated in many countries; therefore alternative in vitro growth techniques are receiving a lot of attention. Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Cannabinoids An additional system offering interesting applications for the industrial production of compounds showing pharmaceutical effects in humans is the hairy root system, a type of Agrobacterium -transformed plant tissue culture used to study plant metabolic processes.
Cannabis Cell Suspension Cultures for the Production of Cannabinoids Plant cell suspension cultures offer important advantages, as they can be transformed and then cultivated in bioreactors for the production of useful metabolites Weathers et al.
Cannabinoid Production in Heterologous Plant Hosts: Perspectives and Conclusion Hemp is a unique versatile plant, which can provide high biomass quantities in a short time. Author Contributions CA was involved in the review writing, J-FH was involved in manuscript refinement, and GG initiated the idea of the review and was involved in the manuscript writing.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress from a human and plant perspective: Gene expression changes related to the production of phenolic compounds in potato tubers grown under drought stress.
Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products:
The cannabis-derived chemical is non-psychoactive, and – while the first time the agency approves a drug derived from the marijuana plant. First off, let's be clear — Cannabis, Hemp and Marijuana are not the same thing. “high”), while CBD does not contain any psychoactive properties. THC is also commonly extracted from the plant and used in a variety of. CBD flower is cannabis bud that helps people relax without feeling for cannabidiol (CBD) for a therapeutic and non-psychoactive experience.